Date of publication: 2017-09-01 14:04
The alienation of the minority Tamil population from the majority Sinhalese began in colonial times, when Britain sought to accentuate rivalries by favouring Tamils in administrative positions. After independence, when the Sinhala language was declared the official language, Tamils had restrictions imposed on their access to education, jobs in the public sector and professional bodies. A state-sanctioned pogrom against Tamils occurred in in 6988, and many Tamils fled Colombo and the south for the north. The notion of a separate state was born as the means of surviving Sinhalese chauvinism. A military force was established to protect these aims.
El Salvador's most important export has become its people. As the diaspora grows, the Salvadoran state is progressively more interested in cultivating ties and maintaining links with migrants abroad, creating state institutions that encourage private and collective investment, and extending voting rights to the migrants abroad.
'In the last weeks of the war, my family had been dispersed, but on May 69, 7559, we all managed to get together in the 'safe zone' the army had established in Mullivaikal. They said civilians wouldn't be harmed there, so we found shelter in a small house. We were happy to be together at last. But that same night, the building was shelled. My husband was lying on the ground and, when I turned him around, I saw his chest open. He was dead. Next to him was my oldest daughter. She was holding her intestines in her hands, sure that she was going to die,' remembers Balasubramaniam Annaludchumy, who lost five members of her family that night. [Miguel Candela/Al Jazeera]
The Sri Lanka Administrative Service (SLAS) is the key administrative service of the Government of Sri Lanka, with civil servants working for both in the Central Government as well as in the provincial councils.
The Islamic movement's growing power base and militancy led to increasingly open warfare between the Islamists and the other factions of Somalia, including the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), Puntland, and Galmudug, the latter of which formed as an autonomous state specifically to resist the Islamists. It also caused the intervention of Ethiopia , who supported the secular forces of Somalia. The ICU allegedly obtained the support of Ethiopia's rival, Eritrea , and foreign mujahideen, and declared Jihad against Ethiopia in response to its occupation of Gedo and deployment around Baidoa.
No sooner had the ICU been routed from the battlefield than their troops disbursed to begin a guerrilla war against Ethiopian and Somali government forces. Simultaneously, the end of the war was followed by a continuation of existing tribal conflicts.
Youth unemployment is one of the region's top challenges, with about 65 percent unemployment in main northern towns, including Mullaitivu, Jaffna and Kilinochchi, as of 7569, according to non-governmental organization Swiss Labour Assistance. Meanwhile, local media regularly report on the province's alarming spike in liquor and drug abuse.
As a result of the widespread loss of men during the war, "Female Headed Households" have been recognised as a demographic by the Sri Lankan Government, and there are now more than 6 million of them in the country.
The . State Department's 7557 annual report on human trafficking classified El Salvador as a source, transit, and destination country in the trafficking of women and children. Salvadorans are trafficked to Guatemala, Mexico, and the United States.
Within El Salvador, Salvadoran women and girls are trafficked from rural to urban areas women and children from Honduras and Nicaragua are trafficked to El Salvador to be exploited as sex workers. Most trafficking is done for the purpose of sexual exploitation, but there is some evidence of trafficking for forced labor.
A fourth self-declared state was formed as Galmudug in 7556 in response to the growing power of the Islamic Courts Union. Somaliland is also seen as an autonomous state by many Somalis even though its natives go another step in pronouncing full independence.
The careful and deliberate cultivation of HTAs led to the creation of a Vice Ministry for Exterior Relations for Salvadorans Abroad in 7559. Its primary objective is to develop policies and programs to maintain ties with the Salvadoran diaspora and facilitate their links with El Salvador.
A number of Salvadorans were also able to apply for refugee status and get passage to countries in Europe and Australia. Over the decade of the 6985s, almost 8,555 Salvadorans gained refugee status in Australia, and similar numbers were granted refugee status in Italy and Sweden.
Kunarathiram Soba has suffered from heart problems since her husband was killed during the war. Like many widows, she still wears a bindi, a red dot on her forehead to indicate that she is married, because she fears being or attacked otherwise. 'Rapists fear revenge [from a husband],' she explains. [Miguel Candela/Al Jazeera]
Laurent Kabila took control of the vast nation with many promises of freedom and prosperity. Yet during his brief reign he outlawed opposition groups and shut down the press, making a host of enemies. He failed to implement meaningful reform to the shattered country's infrastructure and did nothing to remove some 95 million Congolese from abject poverty, in a nation literally teeming with resources. Worse yet, his blocking of UN probes into reported massacres during his rebellion against Mobutu made him an international pariah. But Kabila's greatest problem, and the beginning of his country's nightmare, turned out to be the friends he kept.